Within the overarching campaign strategy, several processes run in parallel, each requiring its own sub-strategy, complete with formative research, theories of change, situation and stakeholder analysis and resource mapping:
- Communication strategy, including media and other forms of outreach (see Campaign Communication): It defines how the campaign will capture the attention of the target audiences and prompt them to take the action the campaign calls for. Strategic communication is results-oriented, evidence-based, “client”-centered, participatory, benefit-oriented (the audience perceives a benefit in taking the action proposed), multi-channel, high quality and cost-effective (O’Sullivan et al, 2003. A Field Guide to Designing a Health Communication Strategy). Effective communication strategies are multi-pronged, targeting different audiences and audience segments through different mediums, channels, at different venues, using different techniques.
- Management and coordination processes in campaign organizations and alliances must be defined at the outset (see Campaign Implementation).
- Fundraising strategy (see also Finances and Fundraising): Establishing a realistic budget for the campaign and planning how best to raise necessary funding is a key element of success. Under-resourced campaigns may terminate prematurely without reaching their goal, which may demoralize campaigners and their audiences.
- Learning strategy (see Monitoring and Evaluation): Monitoring campaign activities, the response and outcomes they provoke, as well as relevant external developments and changes in the campaign context are vital for effective campaign implementation. Furthermore, campaigns should generate learning for future campaigns through quality evaluation, documentation and dissemination of findings.
- Exit, adapting and scaling-up strategies: What criteria need to be met to end a campaign? What needs to happen at the end of a campaign? An exit strategy answers these questions. Scaling-up strategies determine when and how a campaign, e.g. a “pilot” campaign that introduces an innovative approach, can be extended to a larger scale.