Stakeholder mapping shows who has a stake in the campaign issue. It helps to identify the intended primary and secondary target audiences, prospective allies and participants of the campaign, as well as potential detractors. Stakeholder mapping tools are presented in Stakeholder Analysis.
The target audiences are the people, groups, organizations or institutions that need to be influenced to attain the campaign goal. They need to be identified precisely so as to find the most appropriate ways of reaching them. By “targets”, most campaigners refer to the “primary target audience” or “direct target audience” i.e. those who have the power to prompt the change called for. The terms “secondary target audience” or “audience” designate all people the campaign attempts to influence because they can exert pressure on those who are in a position to make the necessary change. In some cases, targets may become campaign allies or participants, e.g. members of parliament who join an advocacy campaign for a new law to be voted in parliament.
It is important to note that stakeholder mapping exercises must include relevant service providers, e.g. rape crisis centers, hotlines for VAW survivors and hotlines for perpetrators, even if these service providers are not among the planned target audience. Effective campaigns on ending VAW tend to increase demand on services that address VAW. To avoid demoralizing the target audience or exposing them to risk, it is crucial they can be referred to appropriate organizations for support. Service providers may also be an excellent source of information and support in research on the campaign issue. See also Adhering to Ethics in Campaigning.
Practical advice – the triple “A” test:
Check whether the support survivors can obtain from the service providers identified is accessible, affordable and acceptable (3 A’s). Keep lists of appropriate (“3A”) service providers with their contact details, and update and distribute them regularly among campaigners. Care needs to be taken not to divulge addresses of women’s shelters that keep their addresses secret for security reasons; only their public telephone numbers or e-mail addresses should be listed.
Lawmakers, government officials and judges are common targets in advocacy campaigns, as they are mandated to promote and protect citizens’ rights. For example, they can pass laws criminalizing violence against women and girls (VAW), set guidelines for public services dealing with VAW (e.g. police, hospitals, courts), train and monitor public service staff on VAW prevention and response, allocate State funding to organizations working on VAW, or run nationwide campaigns to end VAW. Advocacy campaigns are a compelling way to hold duty-bearers accountable of their responsibility to respect, protect and fulfill women’s human rights. Unlike lobbying, which tends to take place behind closed doors, campaigning brings an issue into the public spotlight.
Many governments can do more to fulfill their international engagements and ensure holistic multi-sector policies, but may choose not to devote resources to ending VAW unless effective campaigns demonstrate that there is strong public support for change. A summary of generic actions that can be demanded from governments is available in the Programming Essentials section. Gender-responsive budgeting is another issue that deserves attention as a way to secure resources to end VAW – more information about this can also be found in Programming Essentials.
Next Topic Identifying target audiences