Monitoring and evaluation are critical to the on-going safety and success of livelihoods programs. In addition to monitoring the effectiveness of programs in terms of income-generation, special consideration should be given to monitoring the changing nature of women’s and girls’ vulnerabilities to violence. Strategies should include:
Identifying who is participating and who is not. This data should be disaggregated by age and possibly other characteristics (e.g. residency status, ethnicity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, etc.) to determine which women benefit and which women do not.
Measuring decreases or increases in the incidence, severity and/or risk of harm or violence.
Child labor and school enrolment rates will likely be affected by any economic strengthening programme and should be monitored to mitigate negative effects (Katz et. al., 2012).
Identifying factors that facilitate violations, such as household-level vulnerabilities, disruptions in agricultural practices, economic instability, insecurity, etc.
Learning who is orchestrating, encouraging, permitting and colluding in the perpetration of violence (GBV Area of Responsibility Working Group, 2010).
Modifying programmes, based on programme monitoring, to increase the safety of participants.
Establishing referral systems for participants who fall victim to violence while on the job or in training (Heller & Timoney, 2009).
In addition, it is especially crucial to establish measures for monitoring the safety of women and girls entering into domestic labor. Codes of conduct should be signed by families receiving domestic workers and accountability and follow-up should be an integral part of any domestic service placement programme (Krause-Vilmar, 2011).
For guidance and resources on domestic workers, see the dedicated section of the International Labour Organization website.
Example: The Egyptian Sudanese Development Center in Arba wy Nuss runs a domestic service training and placement programme. The director of the programme promotes the protection and fair treatment of refugee women on a grassroots level by accompanying graduates to their placement homes, recording the names and contact information of employers, as well as the agreed-upon salary. This small step serves to hold families accountable and illustrates the role the community center is willing to play on behalf of refugee women.
Source: Excerpted from Heller & Timoney, 2009, p. 7.