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Mutilation/Coupure génítale féminine

African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (the Banjul Charter), Organization of African Unity, adopted June 27, 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force Oct. 21, 1986. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm

 

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (African Charter) Organization of African Unity, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (1990), entered into force Nov. 29, 1999.  http://www.africa-union.org/Official_documents/Treaties_%20Conventions_%20Protocols/A.%20C.%20ON%20THE%20RIGHT%20AND%20WELF%20OF%20CHILD.pdf.

 

Anika Rahman & Nahid Toubia, Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide, (Zed Books, 2000).

 

Asylum Law and Female Genital Mutilation: Recent Developments, Yule Kim, CRS Report for Congress, 15 February 2008.

 

Australia, Victoria, Crimes Act 1958, 1958. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/ca195882/s34.html

 

BBC, World: Europe: Woman Jailed for 48 Circumcisions, 17 February 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/281026.stm

 

Burkina Faso, Penal Code, Art. 380. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/fgm-prov-b.htm

 

Cairo Declaration for the Elimination of FGM, 23 June 2003, Afro-Arab Expert Consultation on “Legal Tools for the Prevention of Female Genital Mutilation”. http://www.childinfo.org/files/fgmc_Cairodeclaration.pdf

 

Canada, Criminal Code, sec. 268, 2009. http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/C-46/section-268.html

 

Children’s Protection Act, Section 26B, South Australia, 1993.

http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/cpa1993229/s26b.html

 

Council of Europe Resolution 1247 on Female Genital Mutilation (2001).

http://assembly.coe.int/main.asp?Link=/documents/adoptedtext/ta01/eres1247.htm

 

CGRS Advice- Female Genital Cutting Asylum Cases, Center for Gender and Refugee Studies (October 2007).

 

Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: An Interagency Statement, by OCHCR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO, published by WHO, 2008. http://www.unifem.org/attachments/products/fgm_statement_2008_eng.pdf

 

Ending Female Genital Mutilation:  A Strategy for the European Union Institutions, END FGM – European Campaign

http://www.endfgm.eu/en/

 

Equality Now, Equality Now Commends Kenyan Law Enforcement for Sentencing Circumciser and Father to 10 Years’ Imprisonment After Death of Maasai Girl, 20 April 2010. http://www.equalitynow.org/english/pressroom/press_releases/kenya_20100420_en.html

 

Equality Now, Women’s Action, Vol. 8, No. 4, Feb. 1998. http://www.equalitynow.org/english/actions/action_0804_en.html

 

European Network for the Prevention and Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices

http://www.euronet-fgm.org/

 

European Parliament Resolution of 24 March 2009 on combating female genital mutilation in the EU (2008/2071(INI)) P6_TA(2009)0161.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2009-0161+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN

 

European Parliament Resolution on Female Genital Mutilation, 2001/2035(INI). http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P5-TA-2001-0476&format=XML&language=EN

 

European Parliament Resolution of 16 January 2008:  Towards an EU strategy on the rights of the child, INI/2007/2093.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2008-0012+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN

 

Egypt, Order No. 261 of 8 July 1996 of the Minister of Health and Population. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/fgm/Egypt.fgm.htm

 

Female Genital Mutilation: A Matter of Human Rights – An Advocate’s Guide to Action, Center for Reproductive Rights, 2000. http://reproductiverights.org/sites/crr.civicactions.net/files/documents/FGM_final.pdf

 

The FGM Legislation Implemented:  Experiences from Sweden, Sara Johnsdotter, 2009.

http://www.uv.es/CEFD/17/Johnsdotter.pdf

 

France, Laws of France, 2009.

http://www.loc.gov/law/help/child-rights/france.php#Child%20Health%20and%20Social%20Welfare

 

France, Penal Code, 2010. http://195.83.177.9/code/liste.phtml?lang=uk&c=33&r=3691#art16207

 

Ghana, Children’s Act of 1998, 1998. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/44bf86454.html

 

Ghana, Constitution.

http://www.ghanareview.com/Gconst.html.

 

Ghana, Criminal Code Sec. 69A, 1994. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/fgm/ghana.fgm.htm

 

Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing genital mutilation, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO, FIGO, ICN, IOM, MWIA, WCPT, WMA, published by WHO 2010.

http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2010/WHO_RHR_10.9_eng.pdf

 

Handbook for Legislation on Violence Against Women, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Division for the Advancement of Women, 2009. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/handbook/Handbook%20for%20legislation%20on%20violence%20against%20women%20(advance).pdf

 

Hankkeen liitetiedot, Ventaan Nicehearts ry, Naisresurssikeskus Pihlaja.

http://www.nicehearts.com/hankkeet/daphne_iii_end_fgm_european_camp/hankkeen_liitetiedot/

 

Impact of a Female Genital Cutting Elimination Program in Eastern Nigeria, Stella Babalola. http://www.jhuccp.org/research/publications/FGCEVALUATIONREPORT.pdf

 

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

Ireland’s National Plan of Action to Address Female Genital Mutilation, 2008

http://www.ifpa.ie/eng/Media-Info-Centre/Publications/Publications-Reports/Ireland%E2%80%99s-National-Plan-of-Action-to-Address-Female-Genital-Mutilation2

 

Italy, La "Legge Consolo" 7/2006 (Consolo Law 7/2006), 2006.

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Kenya, Children Act of 2001, 2001.

http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/47975f332.html

 

Model Strategies and Practical Measures on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in the Field of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy, March 1999. http://www.icclr.law.ubc.ca/Publications/Reports/VAWMANUA.PDF

 

Netherlands, The Interim Supplement to the Aliens Act Implementation Guidelines (TBV 2003/48), as described in Fourth Dutch Implementation Report on the UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW – UN Women’s Convention) 2000-2004

 

New Zealand, Crimes Act 1961 No. 43, sec. 204A (Female Genital Mutilation), Para. 4. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1961/0043/latest/DLM329734.html

 

Norway, Act Relating to Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation, http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/kilde/hd/bro/2002/0002/ddd/pdfv/155539-engelsk.pdf

 

Norway, Action Plan for Combating Female Genital Mutilation, 2008-2011.   http://www.bufetat.no/Documents/Bufetatno-dokument/Vold_og_krisetiltak/Handlingsplan_kjnnsl_eng_nett.pdf

 

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, Egypt, 13 September 1994.  http://www.unfpa.org/public/site/global/lang/en/pid/5065

 

Protecting Girls from Female Genital Mutilation and Harmful Practices:  Challenges and Opportunites for Legal Intervention in Africa, Report of a Regional Workshop, Nairobi, 24-28 July 2006.

 

Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol), African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 11 July 2003. http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/women_en.html

 

Razor’s Edge – The Controversy of Female Genital Mutilation, IRIN In-Depth Web Special, March 2005. http://www.irinnews.org/pdf/in-depth/FGM-IRIN-In-Depth.pdf; http://www.irinnews.org/IndepthMain.aspx?IndepthId=15&ReportId=62462

 

A Religious Oriented Approach to Addressing Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting among the Somali Community of Wajir, Kenya, Maryam Sheikh Abdi & Ian Askew, 2009.

http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/frontiers/reports/Kenya_Somali_FGC.pdf

 

Republic of Benin, Law No. 2003-3 on Repression of the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), 2003. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/fgm-prov-b.htm

 

Salford Safeguarding Children Board Manual (2009) Appendix 1 – The Legal Framework of 4.1.13 Female Genital Mutilation. http://services.salford.gov.uk/sscb-manual/chapters/contents.htm

 

Senegal, Penal Code of Senegal Art. 299. 1999. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/fgm-prov-p.htm

 

StopVAW, http://www.stopvaw.org/, retrieved 2009. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/fgm-prov-p.htm

 

Sweden, Act (1982:316) on Prohibiting the Genital Mutilation of Women, 1982. http://www.sweden.gov.se/content/1/c6/02/56/50/57ffc446.pdf

 

Togo, Act No. 98-016 of November 17, 1998 Prohibiting Female Genital Mutilation, 1998. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/fgm/togo.fgm.htm

 

“Towards a Consensus on Female Genital Mutilation in the European Union,” Final Report of the DAPHNE Project No. 97/2/096, 1997.

http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/daphnetoolkit/files/projects/1997_096/01_icrh_final_report_1997_096.pdf

 

United Kingdom, Female Genital Mutilation Act, 2003. http://sgdatabase.unwomen.org/uploads/United%20Kingdom%20-%20Female%20Genital%20Mutilation%20Act%202003.pdf

 

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Untied Nations, Commission on the Status of Women, Ending Female Genital Mutilation, E/CN.6.2010/L.8 (54th Session, 1-12 March 2010).

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing15/outcomes/L%208_FGM_Advance%20unedited.pdf

 

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United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Expert Group Meeting on Good practices in legislation to address harmful practices against women, Expert Paper - Overview of Legislation in the European Union to Address Female Gential Mutilation: Challenges and Recommendations for the Implementation of Laws, Leye, Els; Sabbe, Alexia, May 2009. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw_legislation_2009/Expert%20Paper%20EGMGPLHP%20_Els%20Leye_.pdf

 

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http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4a0c28492.html

 

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United States, Minnesota, Minn. Stat. § 144.3872 Female Genital Mutilation; Education and Outreach, 2005.

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United States, Minnesota, Minn. Stat. 260C.163, 2009. https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=260C.163

 

United States, Minnesota, Minn. Stat. 609.2245 Female Genital Mutilation; Penalties, 2009.

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