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Creating programme frameworks

Last edited: December 29, 2011

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  • Conceptual frameworks, usually results or logic models, illustrate how the programming strategies identified will be operationalized and present the linkages between the specific activities planned and direct outputs with the broader outcomes and impact intended for a particular initiative.

Illustrative Example of Results Chain


The resources required to implement a programme 

  • Personnel (e.g. specialized staff for working with survivors/ on gender-based violence, trainers)

  • Equipment (e.g. vehicles for reaching/transporting survivors, communications, supplies for post-rape care, forensic evidence collection, facility for receiving survivors, technology for records management)

  • Funds 


The activities undertaken


  • Public education on police services available and complaints mechanism for abuse of authority

  • Training programmes for police personnel

  • Development of institutional policies on abuse by personnel and response protocols


The result of the activities


  • Number of police trained

  • Trainings institutionalized in police academy curriculum

  • Protocols in place and operationalized within stations

  • Public information materials produced


The consequences of the programme


  • Improved police knowledge and capacity to respond to cases of violence against women increases proper documentation and referrals

  • Public awareness of police obligations and services available to them increases reporting to police

  • Reduced tolerance of violence against women among security personnel results in greater disciplinary penalties against non-compliant staff


The ultimate achievement for the  wider community

  • More effective and responsive security institutions and personnel that provide appropriate support and responses to women and girl survivors

Adapted from UNDP. 2002. “The Monitoring and Evaluation Framework”, Evaluation Office, and OECD. 2008. “Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice

  • Programme models provide the foundation for developing monitoring frameworks, such as results frameworks or logframes, which outline indicators and targets for key outcomes and outputs, and ensure that a programme’s goal and objectives are clear and achievable. These frameworks can inform strategic planning and programme implementation and should be used to establish (during the design phase) and implement the programme’s Monitoring and Evaluation Plan.

  • Programme documents (e.g. concept note, plan, project memorandum or terms of reference) are useful for comprehensively capturing the results of the assessment and programme planning phase, and presenting the strategies and frameworks guiding a particular initiative. These may include details on how the programme will be implemented and what it hopes to achieve, usually covering: background on the initiative, its overall goal, key outputs and outcomes, implementation plan, including actors, institutional/management/financial arrangements and risks involved. See for example, UN Women. 2010. From Communities to Global Security Institutions: Engaging Women in Building Peace and Security 2009-12. New York; and Government of Pakistan/UNDP. 2006. Gender Justice through ‘Musalhiat Anjumana’ Proposal.” Islamabad.           

Examples of different programme Logical Frameworks 

Illustrative example of Logframe        

Overall goals





Police service responsive to violence against women and girls


  1. Case documentation is improved to support prosecution of cases

  2. Increase in number of protection orders enforced

  3. Women/girls have more positive experiences with the police

−        Police officers trained in how to respond to and prevent violence against women and girls

−        Police have increased knowledge and capacity to address violence against women and girls

1.  Training sessions on gender-based violence (including prevention and response)


1.  Case documentation system established and functioning

2.  Proportion of protection orders enforced

3.  Change in satisfaction with police services reported by women and girls’ over time


Improved personal security and enjoyment of rights for women serving in the military.

  1. Increased representation of women in the military

  2. Decrease in incidents of sexual harassment reported by female personnel

−        Assessment study on recruitment procedures and possible entry points

−        Development of policies and procedures to deal with sexual harassment

−        Change of recruitment strategy to promote female recruitment.

1.  Collect data/ reasons or motivations to apply inside/ outside the military.

2.  Affirmative measures for female applicants.

3.  Assessment study on incidents of sexual harassment.



1.  Percentage increase in number of female applicants.

2.  Percentage increase in number of female military staff.

3.  Percentage reduction in number of sexual harassment and abuse cases reported


Adapted from: Nicola Popovic. 2008. “Security Sector Reform Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender.” Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit. Eds. Megan Bastick and Kristin Valasek.: DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR, UN-INSTRAW. Geneva.


Illustrative Example (Excerpt adapted from Logframe: From Communities to Global Security Institutions: Engaging Women in Building Peace and Security- Liberia (DFID/ UN Women Programme, 2008-2013)

Programme Purpose: To ensure that women (including the most marginalized in conflict contexts) are able to contribute to and benefit from security measures and peace building, peacemaking processes  at the community, national, regional and global levels

Indicator:  Change in level of women’s and girls’ physical security at the community level in selected pilot countries of the programme (based on survey)


Security Sector Reforms in Liberia create more secure environments for women by way of protection, access to justice and local reforms

Indicators (2 of 5 featured)


Baseline + year

Milestone 1

Milestone 2

Target + year


Change in the number of community initiatives (in target communities) addressing SGBV that are initiated or supported by women’s organizations in select programme countries (checklist of initiatives will be developed, including co-policing, community safe house, women’s groups involvement in referral mechanisms, etc.)



At least 2 new community led interventions address SGBV in targeted communities and benefit at least 100 women in select programme countries


At least 3 new community led interventions address SGBV in targeted communities

and benefit at least 200 women in select countries


At least 4 new community led interventions address SGBV in targeted communities

and benefit at least 500 women in select countries

−      Partner reports,

−      UN Women Programme Reports

Assumptions: Presence of stable or semi-stable communities in which to operate

Change in proportion of women on community police forums

Extent to which women are involved in community policing forums

10% increase in women involved in community policing forums

20% increase in women involved in community policing forums

Community policing forums are made up of 25% women

−      UN Women reports,

−      administrative data from Police, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Interior and

−      CSO reports


Assumptions: Training is accompanied by national advocacy; Training and advocacy translates into concrete commitments by Senior Management in Liberia National Police; a single institutional reform has the potential to improve the service delivery of hundreds of women; Simultaneous and complementary efforts at the national and global level to address conflict-related sexual violence

Activities Log



Milestone 1

Milestone 2

Milestone 3

Monitoring Officer

1.1.  Enhance community women’s capacity to demand effective police responses to women and girls’ security threats through increased women’s participation in community policing forums and /or through peace hut initiative

1.1.1.     Integrate gender-specific confidence and trust building efforts at local level community policing forums, or other appropriate arenas, to enhance the police’s ability to respond to security concerns of women and girls

Mapping of community level protection initiatives in 2 communities

at least 2 new community initiatives to stop SGBV

At least 3 community initiatives to stop SGBV

Country Programme Manager, SOAP, LNP, MoGD

1.1.2.    Develop a programme to engage community men and traditional and faith-based authorities, in stopping violence against women via identifying role models , a mentorship programme with young men, outreach and counselling

Community level protection initiatives in 2 communities

At least 2 new community initiatives to stop SGBV

At least 3 community initiatives to stop SGBV

Country level Programme Manager, SOAP, LNP, NRWP, MoGD

1.2.  Increased capacity of the police in the 4 focus counties to prevent, respond to, and file reports on SGBV crimes

1.2.1.     Provide financial and technical support for a monthly meeting between the Local Community Service Officer,  the Gender Focal Point, the Women and Children Protection Services Focal Point, and the women in the peace huts

Mapping of meeting schedules for peace huts women and different police units in community

at least 12 meetings between women and different police units held

at least 24 meetings held between women and the police units

Country Programme Managers, LNP, NRWP, MoGD

1.2.2.     Review police training curriculum for gender mainstreaming and train trainers in the police academy on the use of curriculum

Identify the different training curricular for review

Gender-responsive police training curriculum developed

20 trainers/ curriculum users trained in reviewed curriculum

Programme Manager, LNP, MoGD

1.2.3.    Support improved capacity for supervision and outreach to respond to women/girl’s security needs: (procurement of 8 motorcycles, 1/ station; 8 mobile phones for hotlines; vehicles for police; UN Women; 2 yearly spot checks by LNP and UN Women to ensure quality in use of hotline and motorcycles; and launch, midterm, final 4-county meeting to share experiences)

Number of motorcycles and hotlines in target communities

10% increase in use of motorbikes and hotlines

20% increase in use of motorbikes and hotlines

Global Programme Manager and Country Programme Manager

1.2.4.    Support review of Gender Policy of Liberia National Police, including possible south-south training exchange and possible use of DCAF self-assessment tool on gender mainstreaming

Multi-stakeholder consultation process set up

Gender Policy reviewed

Gender self assessment for LNP conducted; results shared

Programme Manager, DCAF, LNP, MoGD


Key Tools

Security Sector Reform (SSR) Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender in the Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit (DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR, UN-INSTRAW, 2008). This tool is for those responsible for security sector and explores two dimensions of gender responsive assessments, monitoring and evaluation. The tool looks at existing SSR assessment frameworks, monitoring and evaluation strategies, and how to include a gender perspective in the different tools and approaches. It also covers gender mainstreaming initiatives in security sector institutions, including how to conduct a gender audit and M&E of gender mainstreaming. Available in English; French; and Indonesian;

Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice: (Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation, 2008). This toolkit is intended primarily for international actors, who provide assistance to the design, monitoring and evaluation of security sector reform programmes. It is also relevant for other stakeholders who wish to learn more about how to assess the effectiveness of security sector reform. The toolkit provides a general introduction on the principles and purposes of monitoring and evaluation, how to monitor and evaluate security sector reform programmes, and can be used at any point in the project, from programme design, implementation, and/or evaluation (separate). Available in English.