Throughout this knowledge module, reference to certain provisions or sections of a piece of legislation, part of a legal judgment, or aspect of a practice does not imply that the legislation, judgment, or practice is considered in its entirety to be a good example or a promising practice.

Some of the laws cited herein may contain provisions which authorize the death penalty. In light of the United Nations General Assembly resolutions 62/14963/16865/206, and 67/176 calling for a moratorium on and ultimate abolition of capital punishment, the death penalty should not be included in sentencing provisions for crimes of violence against women and girls.

Other Provisions Related to Domestic Violence LawsResources for Developing Legislation on Domestic Violence
Sexual Harassment in Sport Tools for Drafting Sexual Harassment Laws and Policies
Immigration Provisions Resources for developing legislation on sex trafficking of women and girls
Child Protection Provisions Resources on Forced and Child Marriage
Other provisions related to dowry-related and domestic violence laws
Related Tools

Students Harassing Students

Last edited: January 13, 2011

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Laws should make clear that it is prohibited for students to sexually harass other students, sometimes known as peer-to-peer harassment. Laws that prohibit any person from committing harassment in the course of educational activities generally include this behavior. Some countries have chosen to specifically prohibit harassment perpetrated by students. Legislation in New South Wales, Australia provides that students over the age of 16 years are “adult students” and are prohibited from harassing other students or their teachers. “Adult students” are subject to sanction, but students under the age of 18 are not liable for monetary damages. (See: Anti-Discrimination Act, sec. 22E) Courts may also interpret laws to cover peer-to-peer harassment, such as has been done in the United States where federal Title IX anti-discrimination legislation has been held to impose liability on school districts for peer-to-peer harassment in certain instances. (See: H. Lewis & E. Norman, Civil Rights Law & Practice, 290-92, 2001)